Torino & Rome : Fratelli Bocca, 1883.
Journal : Archivio di Psichiatria ; vol. 4.
Description : 127–130 p., [2 l.] pl. ; ill.: phots. ; 25.5 cm.
Photographs : 2 composite photolithographs, thumbnail portraits of 56 male offenders & 61 sketched portraits, both sexes.
Printer : Doyen (Camillo, Michele, & Leonardo).
Subject : Face — Criminal physiognomy ; anthropometry (criminal).
Both plates were slightly altered and republished in the enlarged third edition of L'uomo delinquente (1884). This paper they illustrate was published in response to criticism levelled by Francesco barone Ungern-Sternberg, a Dorpat University professor known for his translation (into Italian) of Leidesdorf's textbook in psychiatry, Lehrbuch der psychischen Krankheiten (1878: »»). Dr. Ungern-Sternberg charged Lombroso and his followers with confirmation bias, and argued that Lombroso's "stigmata" (physiognomic signs) of moral atavism failed to establish a criminal typology, because no cross-referencing to a control group was provided (p. 127: »» ; 1884: »»). In response, Lombroso turned to photography and importuned Germany's leading criminologist, Franz Eduard Ritter von Liszt (1851-1919) to send a random sampling of mugshots and police reports of German prisoners. Lombroso supplemented these with line-drawings from newspapers and police archives and used this documentary evidence to catalogue physiognomic anomalies among the prison population.