Consolidated notes and references.


1.) Darwin, Charles (1873), "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals." London: John Murray ; p. 13.

2.) Mifflin, J (2007), "Visual Archives in Perspective: Enlarging on Historical Medical Photographs." In: The American Archivist; vol. 70, no. 1 (Spring-Summer), p. 32.

3.) Ibid; p. 44. Further discussion on Morton's cartes-de-visite and social climbing on page 62. Mifflin's treatise includes an extensive review and commentary of the literature on the reception and archiving of medical images, including the Ether Dome daguerreotypes.

4.) Rice, N (1859): "Trials of a Public Benefactor: As Illustrated in the Discovery of Etherization." New York: Pudney & Russell.

5.) Burns, S (1983), "Early Medical Photography in America: 1839-1883." New York: The Burns Archive (reprinted from the New York State Journal of Medicine); p. 1258-9.

6.) Darwin, Charles (1873); p. 231. Darwin was testing responses to Plate 2, Fig. 16, from the Petit édition of Duchenne's, Mécanisme de la physionomie humaine (Paris, 1862: Jules Renouard). The "young man" who Duchenne faradized was Jules Talrich (1826-1904), artist and model maker to the Faculté de médecine.

7.) Ibid; p. 14.

8.) Ibid; p. 300-301. Reported by Dr. William Ogle (1827-1912) of St. George's Hospital at the behest of Darwin.

9.) Prodger, P (1988), "An annotated catalogue of the illustrations of human and animal expression from the collection of Charles Darwin." Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press, Ltd.

Reenactment Scenario.

10.) Warren, JC (1848), "Etherization: With Surgical Remarks." Boston: William D. Ticknor; p. 6.

11.) Norris, R (1997), "In praise of scratched daguerreotypes. Portraits of the Whitridge brothers." In: The Daguerreian Annual. Pittsburgh: The Daguerreian Society ; p. 32–46. EDD No. 1 is Fig. 6 on p. 37, captioned: "Attributed to Southworth and Hawes. Reenactment of the first operation under ether." Norris doesn't cite her source for the caption, but it was probably a transcription from the Fogg Museum where the daguerreotype is archived.

12.) Newhall, B (1961), "The Daguerreotype in America." New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce; plate 56. Newhall was misled by Richard B. Holman (1903–1984), the son of Louis A. Holman (1866–1939), owner of the eponymous Boston print shop that handled the Hawes estate.

13.) Haridas, RP (2010), "Photographs of early ether anesthesia in Boston. The daguerreotypes of Albert Southworth and Josiah Hawes." In: Anesthesiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; vol. 113, p. 13-26.

14.) Anonymous (1906), "Ether day at the Massachusetts General Hospital." In: The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. Boston: Cupples, Upham & Company ; vol. 155, no. 16, p. 450.

15.) Lowry, B & Lowry, I (2005), "Simultaneous developments: documentary photography and painless surgery." In: Young America: the daguerreotypes of Southworth and Hawes. New York: George Eastman House & International Center of Photography (Romer & Wallis, ed.); p. 75-88.

16.) Ibid; p. 83.

17.) Ibid; p. 78.

Henry Bryan Hall.

18.) Rice, N (1859); pl. facing p. 42.

19.) Ibid; p. 94.

20.) Morton, EW (1896), "The discovery of anesthesia. Dr. W. T. G. Morton and his heroic battle for a new idea — how painless surgery began fifty years ago." In: McClure's Magazine. London & New York: The S. S. McClure Co.; vol. 7., p. 311-388, ill.

21.) Hall, HB (1896), "The first public demonstration of etherization at the Massachusetts General Hospital." In: The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. Boston: Damrell and Upham ; vol. 135, no. 16. Phototypes facing p. 386.

Arthur Ignatius Keller.

22.) Massachusetts General Hospital (1897), "The first public demonstration of surgical anaesthesia." Cambridge, Mass.: H. O. Houghton & Co; pl. facing page 17. The reproduction of Keller's painting is captioned, "The First Public Demonstration of Surgical Anaesthesia, Boston, Oct. 16. 1846."

23.) Warren Jr., JC (1896), "The influence of anesthesia on the surgery of the nineteenth century." In: Transactions of the American Surgical Association. Philadelphia: William J. Dornan ; vol. 15, plate facing page 1. This was a transcription of the Presidential address of J. Mason Warren's son, inaugurated in 1896. He was named after his grandfather John Collins Warren. The plate he describes is a reproduction of EDD No. 2, noting that his family was always in possession of the daguerreotype.

Robert Cutler Hinckley.

24.) Wolfe, RJ (1993), "Robert C. Hinckley and the Recreation of The First Operation Under Ether." Boston: The Boston Medical Library in the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine; Illustration 5, p. 31. Wolfe is the current source in print for excerpts from Dr. Viets's pamphlet, "Hinckley's who was who on Ether Day: An Exhibit," (Boston: 1962).

25.) Ibid; p. 45-53. Holograph notation reads: "[William Clark] Beckwith" and "[Jacob] Dresser." The sketch is one of ten "Studies for the First Operation under Ether" that Hinckley gifted to Harvard in 1934 and are now archived at the Countway Medical Library in Boston.

26.) Rice, N (1859); p. 94.

27.) Wolfe, RJ (1993); See Wolfe's theory, page 79, on Hildreth's face as a prototype for Bertody in the figure I identify as modeled after Slade, "simply because his [face] was available and Bertody's was not." Slade was not present for the Abbott operation and Hildreth sat in the bleachers, but he may have pushed himself onto the canvas through his correspondence with Hinckley; two of the ten charcoal sketches are of Hildreth. Regarding my other attributions, Heywood was responsible for writing down the surgeon's commentary and entering details of the procedure into the MGH record books, which is why the figure mistaken for a newspaper reporter is the logical choice for Heywood in the scene. A newspaper reporter would not have been allowed onto the floor of the surgical arena, likewise, Eben Frost would have been escorted out before Warren lifted his scalpel. I believe Viets missed the visual metaphor of Dr. George Hayward, who is depicted as the next occupant of the chair of the surgical department at MGH. Viets's identification of Parkman as Bigelow is clearly wrong, though the figure's face doesn't quite match Parkman's aquilinity. Bigelow corresponded with Hinckley and sent diagrams for guidance that confirm my attribution to Parkman; see Wolfe p. 70-71 for the quote. Hinckley's portrayal of J. Collins Warren doesn't quite measure up to the great surgeon's powerful visage and presence.

Jonathan Mason Warren.

28.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 79.

29.) Ibid; p. 77.

30.) Wolfe, RJ (1993); Appendix 1, p. 123-126. "Illustration 27" (p. 124) is a reproduction of the 1st & 2nd states of Hall's engraving. "Illustration 28" (page 125) reproduces a sheet of Morton's holograph instructions attached to the 2nd state print.

31.) Morton, WTG, et al (1853), "Statements, supported by evidence, of Wm. T. G. Morton, M.D. on his claim to the Discovery of the Anaesthetic Properties of Ether, Submitted to the Honorable The Select Committee Appointed by Senate of the United States. Presented at: 32nd Congress, 2nd Session, Washington, D.C., January 21, 1853." Washington: np; p. 386-95. See page 387.

32.) Haridas, RP (2010); p. 17-18.

33.) Wolfe, RJ (2001), "Tarnished idol. William Thomas Green Morton and the Introduction of Surgical Anesthesia : a Chronicle of the Ether Controversy." San Anselmo, California: Norman Publishing; Figure 12, page 78. See Wolfe's description of Figure 12 on page xi: "Reenactment, probably also occurring in April 1847 and daguerreotyped by J. J. Hawes, of the first operation under ether. Those who can be identified are Solomon D. Townsend (second from the front on the left), Samuel Cabot (beside the person holding the ether inhaler), and J. Mason Warren (second from the front on the right). Reproduced from a print originally in the possession of the Morton family and now in the Harvard Medical Library." Wolfe's attribution of Cabot is discussed below with Dr. Slade.

34) Warren, JM (1847), "Inhalation of ether." In: Boston Medical & Surgical Journal. Boston: David Clapp; vol. 36, no. 8 (March 24), p. 149-62. See "Case II," p. 150-1. Reprint also issued.

35.) Warren, JM (1867), "Surgical observations, with cases and operations." New York: William Wood & Co.; p. 618.

36.) Morton, WTG, et al (1853); p. 387.

37.) Warren Jr., JC (1896); p. 25.

38.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); no. 47, p. 87. See also the appendix, "The Young Seamstress Daguerreotype, April 3, 1847 (fig. 2)."

Henry Jacob Bigelow.

39.) Bigelow, HJ (1846), "Insensibility during Surgical Operations produced by Inhalation." Read before the Boston Society for Medical Improvement, Nov. 9th, 1846, etc. In: Boston Medical & Surgical Journal ; v. 35, no. 16 (Nov. 18), p. 309-317.

40.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 79. "The man with his hand grasping the chair is Dr. Henry Jacob Bigelow, who had been the prime instigator of the original demonstration and the first to publish a report on the use of ether in surgery."

41.) Bigelow, WS, and Bigelow HJ (1900), "A Memoir of Henry Jacob Bigelow, A.M., M.D., LL.D." Boston: Little, Brown, and Company; the collotype of Bigelow faces page 18.

42.) Ibid (1900); p. 146.

43.) Warren, JM (1847); "Case XIII," p. 156-157.

44.) Morton, WTG, et al (1853); p. 387.

45.) Warren, JM (1847); p. 160.

46.) Wolfe, RJ (1993); pp. 84, 158-159. Jacob Bigelow's letter to Francis Boott was dated November 28, 1846. See Boott, "Surgical operations performed during insensibility produced by the inhalation of sulphuric ether" ; in: [The London] Lancet, v. 1 (Jan. 2, 1847), 5-8.

47.) Bigelow, HJ (1848), "Anæsthetic agents, their mode of exhibition and physiological effects." In: Transactions of the American Medical Association. Philadelphia: T. K. and P. G. Collins; vol. 1, p. 197-221. See columnar table C.-2. on pages 215-217.

Samuel Parkman.

48.) Unknown photographer (c1853): "Oliver Wendell Holmes and members of the Boston Society for Medical Improvement." [Boston]; archived at the Francis A. Countway Library, Picture Collection, Ser. 249, box 3, f. 3. See appendix for information on the date.

49.) Hodges, RM (1891), "A Narrative of Events Connected with the Introduction of Sulphuric Ether Into Surgical Use." Boston: Little, Brown, and Company;

50.) Warren, Jr., JC (1897); see page 11 for Wyman's letter.

Daniel Denison Slade.

51.) Wolfe, RJ (2001); Figure 12, page 78.

52.) Slade, DD (1892): Historic moments: The first capital operation under the influence of ether. In: Scribner's Monthly. New York: Scribner's; vol. 12 (October), p. 518-24.

John Call Dalton.

53.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 87, no. 42. "There exists in the MGH archives a notation citing an early inscription (preserved on the back of a photograph of the reenactment) that describes the hand on the patient's forehead as belonging to Morton."

54.) Warren, E (March 1847), "Some Account of the Letheon: Or, Who is the Discoverer?" Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, Printers; p. 79 & pl. Regular edition published without the frontis. The lithograph is a copy of a portrait of Morton painted by William Hudson in 1845. The painting made its first appearance in print in 1908 as the frontispiece to Herbert O. McCrillis's article, "The Conquest of Pain." In: The New England Magazine: An Illustrated Monthly ; vol. 38, p. 244.

55.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 87, no. 42.

56.) Haridas, RP (2010); p. 17.

57.) Slade, DD (1892); p. 523.

58.) Hodges, RM (1891); p. 38-39.

59) Morton, WTG, et al (1853); p. 390.

Charles Frederick Heywood.

60.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 79. "At the other side of Townsend is the recently appointed junior house surgeon, Dr. Charles Frederick Heywood, who appeared in subsequent daguerreotypes as the anesthetist."

61.) Vandam, LD (1995), "Charles Frederick Heywood : House Surgeon at the Ether Demonstration." In: Anesthesiology. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company; vol. 82, p. 772-778.

62.) Rice, N (1859); p. 94.

Charles Bertody.

63.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 79.

64.) Ayer was a witness to the Abbott operation and he recounted his experience before a meeting of the San Francisco Medico-Chirurgical Society on February 3, 1895, under the title, "The Discovery of Anesthesia by Ether: With an Account of the First Operation Performed Under Its Influence at the Massachusetts General Hospital, and an Extract from the Record-book of the Hospital" (Sacramento, 1896). Very little of Ayer's memory of the event deviated from what was already in the literature, but regarding the great surgeon's stature he contributed, "Dr. Warren was of medium size, perhaps 5 feet 8, and did not weigh more than 150 pounds at that time. He had a great deal of energy and determination in his movements."

Solomon Davis Townsend.

65.) Morton, WTG, et al (1853); p. 355-376. ; See pages 363 & 365 for the interrogatories cited.

Determining the date of EDD No. 1.

66.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 78. "The completed daguerreotype (fig. 1), probably taken in December 1846, allows us to judge the effectiveness of their [Southworth & Hawes] preparations."

67.) Wolfe, RJ (2001); Figure 12, p. 78. A more detailed description appears on page xi: "Figure 12. Reenactment, probably also occurring in April 1847 and daguerreotyped by J. J. Hawes, of the first operation under ether. Those who can be identified are Solomon D. Townsend (second from the front on the left), Samuel Cabot (beside the person holding the ether inhaler), and J. Mason Warren (second from the front on the fight). Reproduced from a print originally in the possession of the Morton family and now in the Harvard Medical Library."

68.) Bigelow, HJ (1848); Table C.-2. on pages 215-217. The MGH table was prepared by John Call Dalton, vide: footnote, p. 10 of the annual report for Massachusetts General Hospital (January 26, 1848), where it is stated, "Dr. Ralph K. Jones, one of the house physicians, politely copied for the use of the Committee a list of all these 132 cases (prepared by Dr. Dalton, one of the house surgeons, for a different purpose)."

Samuel Parkman's December 9th report.

69.) Parkman, S (1846), "Inhalation of ethereal vapor – painless reduction of a dislocated shoulder joint under its influence." In: Boston Medical and Surgical Journal; vol. 35, no. 20 (Dec. 16), 409-10.

70.) Hodges, RM (1891); p. 148.

71.) Warren, JC (1848); p. 46.

72.) Haridas, RP (2023); Recorded in the MGH case book. Eckels slipped and fell at around 10:00pm on December 8. Duration of the injury to time of cure was 20 hours. The information and clarifications on the chronology come from Dr. Rajesh P. Haridas by way of our personal correspondence.

Jonathan Mason Warren's February 6th report

73.) Warren, JM (1847); p. 157-158.

74.) Warren, JM (1867); p. 534-535, "Case CCCXIX."

Jonathan Mason Warren's March 13th report

75.) Warren, JM (1847); p. 155-156. "Case XI."

76.) Warren, JM (1857), "Tumors in the parotid region." In: Boston Medical and Surgical Journal; vol. 56, p. 291. See "Case II."

77.) Warren, JM (1867); p. 497-498. See "Case CCLXXXV."

78.) Palmer, J (1864), "Necrology of Alumni of Harvard College, 1851-52 to 1862-63." Boston: John Wilson and son; p. 277.

79.) Warren, JM (1848), "Operation for Fissure of the Soft and Hard Palate, with the result of Twenty-four Cases." In: The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard. London: Wiley & Putnam and John Miller; ns., vol. 15, no. 30 (April), p. 149-62. See Case I, p. 331.

80.) Ibid; Case IV, p. 333.

81.) Ibid; Case VI, p. 334. Full name of "B. Brown" is Buckminster Brown.

82.) Warren, JC (1846), "Inhalation of ethereal vapor for the prevention of pain in surgical operations." In: Boston Medical & Surgical Journal. Boston: David Clapp; vol. 35, no. 19 (December 9), p. 378. Reprint also issued. "The patient lying upon a bed, the vapor was administered by Dr. Morton in the presence of Drs. Charles T. Jackson Reynolds, JVC Smith, Flagg, Gould, Shurtleff, Lawrence, Parsons, Briggs, and others." This is Dr. Warren's landmark study that includes his report on the Abbott operation, establishing etherization in the medical canon.

83.) Warren, JM (1847); p. 155-156. Case XI: Warren's parotid surgery for the full-blooded man.

84.) Warren, JM (1867); p. 41.

85.) Anonymous notice printed in the BMSJ; vol. 36, no. 6 (March 10, 1847), p. 123.

86.) Warren, E (March 1847).

April 3rd scenario.

87.) Bigelow, HJ (1848); Table C.-2. on pages 215-217. Warren's patient, the "full-blooded" man, who was treated on March 13, 1847, is entered as 32 years old on Bigelow's table, but this is an error made clear by Warren's reports.

88.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); p. 79. "The patient on April 3 was Athalana Golderman, described in the records as a slight, young seamstress."

89.) Harvard University (1848), "Twenty-second Annual Report of the President of the University at Cambridge to the Overseers, Exhibiting the State of the Institution for the Academical Year 1846-47." Cambridge: Metcalf and Company; p. 5-7. See also Thomas Francis Harrington's history of the medical college (1905); v. 2, p. 511-512.

90.) Carlebach ML (1992), "The Origins of Photojournalism in America." Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1992; p. 38. Carlebach identified Holmes in the figure standing next to John Collins Warren in EDD No. 3, but failed to provide a source for his attribution.

Ether Dome Daguerreotype No. 2.

91.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); no. 47, p. 87. A communication from Dr. Haridas pointed me to a document in which her name is registered "Goldermann."

92.) Warren Jr., JC (1896); p. 25. Haridas states, "This daguerreotype does not document the first ever use of the sponge, but documents an early use of the sponge at MGH." The sponge is currently on display at the Ether Dome in Boston.

93.) Haridas, RP (2010); p. 19.

94.) Hayward, G (1850), "Statistics of the Amputations of Large Limbs that Have Been Performed at the Massachusetts General Hospital: From Its Establishment to Jan. 1, 1850." Boston: D. Clapp; Table II, p. 13. Hayward records that Ann Kerr underwent amputation below the knee with flap for "periostitis of the foot" and was discharged on May 13. There is a discrepancy of age: 18 on Hayward's table and 19 on Bigelow's. The surgery was not included in Chadwick's compilation of amputations at MGH (1872).

Ether Dome Daguerreotype Nos. 3-5.

95.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); pp. 82, 88.

96.) Haridas, RP (2010); p. 20.

97.) Hayward, G (1850); Table II, p. 13. Name of the patient documented. According to Hayward, the patient was admitted on June 14, 1847 and the amputation took place on October 2. Discharge date was the following May 20, 1848. Bigelow's table records July 3 for the first surgery which gave some relief, but failed to arrest the disease.

98.) Warren, JC (1848); p. 50-52. This was the first of two operations. There is a Warren Museum Catalog specimen of a 6-inch fibula (no. 1326, p. 247) dated 1847, but it is fusiform and there is no indication of an osteoma in the description.

99.) Warren, E (1860), "The Life of John Collins Warren, M.D.: Compiled Chiefly from His Autobiography and Journals." Boston: Ticknor & Fields; vol. 2, p. 191.


100.) Haridas, RP (2023), ibidem: The information and clarifications on the chronology come from Dr. Rajesh P. Haridas by way of our personal correspondence.

101.) Southworth & Hawes (1851), "Particulars interesting to those wanting daguerreotypes." In: The Boston Directory. Boston: Sampson & Murdock Company; vol. 47, p. 32-33 (supplement of advertisers).

102.) Lowry & Lowry (2005); Appendix, p. 84.

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